2019考研英语阅读:三正一误的判断、推理和引申题

2018-09-12 11:00:59   来源:中公教育    点击:
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众所周知,阅读是考研英语中最重要的一个题型,四篇阅读理解占到了该科目总分的40%,因此才有了“得阅读者得天下”的说法。本文分享“2019考研英语阅读:三正一误的判断、推理和引申题”相关内容,一起来看看吧。

三正一误

三正一误题型要求考生判断哪一个选项与文章不符。检验答案时有两种方式,一是正确选项所给的信息在文中根本没有提到过,二是正确选项所给信息与文中其他内容相互冲突。

1996年第56题:

With the start of BBC World Service Television, millions of viewers in Asia and America can now watch the Corporation’s news coverage, as well as listening to it.

And of course in Britain listeners and viewers can tune in to two BBC television channels, five BBC national radio services and dozens of local radio stations. They are brought sport, comedy, drama, music, news and current affairs, education, religion, parliamentary coverage, children’s programmes and films for an annual license fee of £83 per household.

It is a remarkable record, stretching back over 70 years—yet the BBC's future is now in doubt. The Corporation will survive as a publicly-funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programmes are now the subject of a nation-wide debate in Britain.

The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC—including ordinary listeners and viewers—to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. The reason for its inquiry is that the BBC’s royal charter runs out in 1996 and it must decide whether to keep the organization as it is, or to make changes.

Defenders of the Corporation—of whom there are many—are fond of quoting the American slogan “If it ain’t broken, don't fix it.” The BBC “ain’t broke”, they say, by which they mean it is not broken (as distinct from the word ‘broke’, meaning having no money), so why bother to change it?

Yet the BBC will have to change, because the broadcasting world around it is changing. The commercial TV channels—TV and Channel 4—were required by the Thatcher Government’s Broadcasting Act to become more commercial, competing with each other for advertisers, and cutting costs and jobs. But it is the arrival of new satellite channels—funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers’ subscriptions—which will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

In the passage, which of the following about the BBC is not mentioned as the key issue?

[A] Extension of its TV service to Far East.

[B] Programmes as the subject of a nation-wide debate.

[C] Potentials for further international co- operations.

[D] Its existence as a broadcasting organization.

下列哪一项BBC没有作为一个关键问题提及?

这是一个标准的三正一误推理引申题。正确答案:C。

由历年考研英语真题可知,阅读理解部分的试题中,大多数是针对段落的细节设计的,其目的是为了测试考生对组成段落的主体部分的理解。在每年的考试中,细节题的数量是最多的,大约占50%,其中涉及对文章中复杂句、列举、例证、引用、转折、因果关系等的处理,因此做好这类题至关重要。

另外,细节题的测试在另一方面也可以考察考生对段落结构的理解程度,哪些是辅助论点,哪些是主要脉络,只有对这些细节有一定的了解,我们才能更深入地领会文 章。文章的细节并不是孤立的,它总要与其他事实前后呼应,一般来说,作者总会把同等性质的事实放在一起,并借助不同的衔接手段进行组合,从而达到说服读者 或阐明观点的目的。其提问方式不外乎有以下几种:

The author provides following examples except …

According to the author, all of the following are true except (that)____.

Which is among the best possible ways to…?

Which of the following would NOT be an example____?

Which of the following is the LEAST likely…?

对于细节题我们要从词义与语法(句法)着手,从这个角度来说,此类考题又可被细划分以下几个细类:

1. 因果标志语

表因果关系的标志词可具体分为:

(1)表原因

because of, since, for, as, now that, seeing that, owing to, caused by, the main reason for…is

(2)表结果

hence, thus, so, therefore, consequently, as a consequence, accordingly, for that reason

2. 结论标志语

in general, generally speaking, in short, in a word, to be brief in all, in simple words

3. 转折与对比语

but, however, nevertheless, otherwise, dissimilarly, unlike, on the contrary, in contrast, in opposition to, on the opposite side

4. 比较类型标记语

similarly, likewise, in similar fashion, in similar way, in the same matter, just as

5. 列举标志语

one… another…still another, first…second…third

6. 举例标志语

for example, as an example, as an instance, take…as an example, let me cite… as a proof

针对细节题,考生要注意分析句子和句子之间的关系,是因果、递近、转折还是什么?尤其要注意文章的第一句和最后一句,以及每段的第一句和最后一句与其它句子 的关系,体会每句话在文章中的作用。在阅读过程中,要培养自己对文章主要讨论对象、关键词,作者和专家的观点,以及语气的把握。特别注意作者和专家的观 点,专家和专家之间的观点是否相同或相反或互补,以及作者和专家的语气是赞成还是反对,是关注还是乐观等等。如果是真题,还要仔细分析考点和正确、干扰选 项的规律、特征。在此过程中,可把文章尽可能的多读几遍,甚至翻译一下,提高对文章中单词、短语、句型等的反应速度,阅读速度自然也就提高了。

此外,阅读的步骤也十分重要。许多考生拿到文章之后从头读起,读完再去一个一个选答案。这种方法十分传统,叫整体阅读法。其优点是可以有一种全局感或整体 感。缺点是文章太长,读后细节记不住,再去找答案又费劲又容易出错,许多细节都混淆在一起了,得分经常不高。建议同学们用一下查找阅读法:读完第一段就做 第一题。然后看第二个问题问的什么,带着这个问题去看第二段,然后是第三段、第四段,依此类推。(注意,有一种问题可能此方法不太适用,那就是:主旨性问 题)。查找式阅读法虽然把文章看得支离破碎,但得分往往很高,因为刚看一段就去做一道题,这样对细节会把握得很准。

所以,阅读理解并不是简单的读懂文章就可以把题作对,在对文中内容全面正确把握的同时还要审清题目,理解题目要求。

2001年Passage 1

Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge. By splitting up the subject matter smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.?

54. The direct reason for specialization is _________.

[A]the development in communication

[B]the growth of professionalisation

[C]the expansion of scientific knowledge

[D]the splitting up of academic societies

该题考察的是实行专业化的直接因素是什么,根据本文第一句即可找到答案C为正确选项,其中“as a response to”即表示的是因果关系。

类似的解题思路可应用到以下文章中:

What accounts for the great outburst of major inventions in earlyAmerica—breakthroughs such as the telegraph, the steamboat and the weaving machine?

Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools; a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, spatial thinking about things technological.(1996)

1. According to the author, the great outburst of major inventions in early America was in a large part due to ________.

[A] elementary schools

[B] enthusiastic workers

[C] the attractive premium system

[D] a special way of thinking

The researchers studied the behavior of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, cooperative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services than males. (2005)

2. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are ________.

[A] more inclined to weigh what they get

[B] attentive to researchers’ instructions

[C] nice in both appearance and temperament

[D] more generous than their male companions

这两道题共同的特点就是题目中都有一个表示程度的限定词。第一道题中的限定词是in a large part,第二道题中的限定词是most probably,这两个词语的出现本身就有一个暗示,说明选项中应该有不止一个原因,但是题目要求回答出其中最重要的一个因素。原文定位第一道题,可以发现定位句“I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools;a labor force that welcomed the new technology;the practice of giving premiums to inventors;and above all the American genius for nonverbal,spatial thinking about things technological”中含有四个并列成分,分别是“excellent elementary schools” , “a labor force”, “the practice of giving premiums to inventors”和“the American genius for nonverbal,spatial thinking about things technological”。上述四个内容在选项中都有出现,很多同学会因为先入为主的思维习惯选择A。但是当我们注意到题干中的限定信息是要求找其中影响最大的一个因素,我们就要比照四个因素哪个影响最大。原文中的第四点前出现了above all,这个短语表示“最重要的是”,所以此题应该选择D。

类似的2005年的考题中也出现了同样的情况,题干中出现most,选项中出现了列举。“They look cute. They are good-natured,cooperative creatures,and they share their food tardily. Above all,like their female human counterparts,they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services than males.” 这些列举也分别被设计成了干扰项。但是其中受到强调的是above all 后面的这个因素。“like their female human counterparts,they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of goods and services’ than males”,所以此题答案为A。

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